Monday, August 31, 2020

Revolution (More musings on using artificial intelligence in transfusion medicine)

Updated: 3 Sept. 2020 (Added to Learning Point)

August's blog will discuss the issue of artificial intelligence (AI) & 'big data' in medicine and health.

The idea for the blog was stimulated by a fascinating article in The Economist of June 13-19 as part of its Technology Quarterly: 'Driverless cars illustrate the limits of today's AI.' (Further Reading)

The blog's title derives from a 1968 ditty by the Beatles written by John Lennon


According to The Economist article, the following are some of AI's current limitations that I've chosen to highlight. Yes they relate to self-driving cars but most have broad applicability relevant to medicine:

1. Self-driving cars work similar to other applications of machine learning. Computers crunch huge piles of data to extract general rules, and in theory the more data, the better the systems perform.  

But deep-learning is statistical, linking inputs to outputs in ways specified by training data. That leaves them unable to cope with “edge cases” ­ unusual circumstances that are not common in those training data.

  • You can imagine if this applies to driving cars how much it can apply to the complexities of human beings, their health, symptoms, medical needs, etc. Humans can cope with oddities much better than AI, which in some ways works with only half a brain. 

2. Google’s “Translate” often does a decent job at translating between languages. But in 2018 researchers noticed that, when asked to translate 18 repetitions of the word “dog” into a language spoken in parts of Nigeria and Benin and back into English, it came up with the following hilarious translations:

  • “Doomsday Clock is at three minutes to twelve. We are experiencing characters and dramatic developments in the world, which indicate that we are increasingly approaching the end times and Jesus’ return.” 
  • Fact: Google’s system doesn't understand language because concepts like verbs and nouns are alien. It's constructed using statistical rules linking strings of letters in one language with strings of letters in another and is baffled by questions a toddler would find trivial. 

3. Richard Sutton, AI researcher at the University of Alberta and DeepMind, published “The Bitter Lesson” (Further Reading) arguing that AI history shows that attempts to build human understanding into computers rarely work. The “bitter lesson” is that “the actual contents of [human] minds are tremendously, irredeemably complex…They are not what should be built in [to machines].” 

Christopher Manning of Stanford University’s AI Lab notes that biological brains learn from far richer data-sets than machines. 

4. About Big Data, which makes AI possible, see 'Big Data in Healthcare' (Further Reading). The conclusion: 'While big data provides great potential for improving healthcare delivery, it is essential that we consider the individual, social and organizational contexts of data use when implementing big data solutions.'  Personal note: 

* The lead author is one of my UAlberta Med Lab Science 'kids'. 


AI has a long way to go before it can be safely used in self-driven cars. Despite the hype, AI has an even longer road to travel before it's as safe and reliable as human health care professionals. Feel free to disagree. 

The entire Technical Quarterly in The Economist, June 13-19, 2020 deals with AI and its limits. As its many proponents hype AI and Big Data, it's prudent to show their limitations too. Included articles:

  1. Reality check: After yrs of hype,an understanding of AI's limitations is beginning to set in
  2. Data - Not So Big: Data can be scarcer than you think and full of traps
  3. Brain Scan | An AI for an eye: Pioneering ophthalmologist highlights the potential, and the pitfalls, of medical AI
  4. Computing Hardware | Machine Learning: The cost of training machines is becoming a problem
  5. Road Block: Driverless cars illustrate the limits of today's AI
  6. The Future | Autumn is coming: As AI's limits become apparent, humans will add more

Note:  If you don't subscribe to The Economist, perhaps take a trial one? Or check if your hospital is affiliated with a university, college (or perhaps the public library) has it available.

As always, comments are most welcome. And there are some.


I chose this song because pretty much everyone has hopped on Big Data and AI bandwagons as if they're a revolution that's going to sweep traditional medicine aside. Maybe but I suspect not for years.


Driverless cars illustrate the limits of today's AI - They, and many other such systems, still struggle to handle the unexpected (The Economist, June 13-19, 2020) 

Prior AI blog (30 Nov. 2019): I can see clearly now (Musings on using artificial intelligence in transfusion medicine)

The Bitter Lesson by Rich Sutton (19 Mar. 2019)

Rich Sutton, University of Alberta | Also see this bio

Kuziemsky CE, Monkman H, Petersen C, et al. Big Data in Healthcare - Defining the digital persona through user contexts from the micro to the macro. Contribution of the IMIA Organizational and Social Issues WG. Yearb Med Inform. 2014;9(1):82-9. Published 2014 Aug 15. 

Friday, July 31, 2020

I heard it through the grapevine-2 (Musings on the value of Twitter)

Last March I wrote a blog promoting Twitter for TM professionals (Further Reading) and for July's blog, I'll do a second one.
The blog's title derives from 1966 ditty recorded by Marvin Gaye and later Creedence Clearwater Revival.  

To me far too few transfusion professionals are on Twitter, including medical laboratory technologists, nurses, and physicians. Many reasons, including Facebook preceded Twitter and Twitter tends to have a poor reputation in general. Today Facebook has an even worse reputation but if you're on it, you may value how it keeps you in touch with pals and family. 

In my experience TM folks on Twitter are a different breed. They want to share resources and expertise and, if you want to engage in continuing professionals education, Twitter is a wonderful free resource. Questions can be asked and answered by experts. Also Twitter is international. Based on my Twitter account (Further Reading), experts from Australia, Canada, UK, USA, and professionals from many nations in Africa and Asia participate. Glad to report that some Canadian medical laboratory technologists are on Twitter.

UNDERSTANDING TWITTER (from earlier blog)
First, Signing up on Twitter is easy 
Tidbits (Twitter 101):
  • Language: Twitter is the software platform. You are a tweep. When you post a message, it's called a tweet. 
  • If not on Twitter when accessing a tweet and asked to join, just click on another part of the screen and you can see direct tweets. 
  • Be aware you don't need to tweet. Just as on mailing lists, you can lurk.  
  • By being on Twitter you can see the replies given by tweeps to other tweeps. If not, you can see only their direct tweets (not replies). 
  • Twitter gives you quicker access to important professional events and issues, allows you to share resources with colleagues.  
  • As a citizen Twitter is the place to be because you get news about anything well before it appears on mainstream media, e.g., disasters, latest weather, political events. All media and reporters are on Twitter.
  • Twitter hashtags are key (Further Reading) For example, they can be used to identify who to follow. And you can also see who others follow for more suggestions.
Learning Point: If you are a transfusion professional in any capacity, please consider joining Twitter. You won't be disappointed. Look at my account to see who I follow, many transfusion experts from all over the world, well known experts.

As always, comments are most welcome.

Chose this ditty because Twitter is a good grapevine to keep up with the latest transfusion medicine news.

Tuesday, June 30, 2020

You never give me your money (Musings on paying to develop COVID-19 vaccine)

Updated: 1 July 2020
What to blog about when COVID-19 dominates the news, whether it's research funding, impact on blood supplies, paid plasma proponents, testing, treatments, vaccines? Plus, of course, government guidelines and measures to prevent the spread of coronavirus while opening up the economy.

Finally decided that June's blog should discuss the question of who pays to develop COVID-19 vaccine and who gets priority once it exists, including which countries worldwide and, within countries like the USA without universal healthcare, will all be able to afford it.

The blog's title derives from a 1969 ditty by the Beatles.

Governments worldwide have invested billions into developing a coronavirus vaccine, some given to university researchers, some to Big Pharma. There are reports that if a vaccine is developed inside a nation, that country will have priority access to the vaccine.

If COVID-19 has taught us anything it's that supply chains for crucial medical equipment like food, PPE and drugs must be secured and the best way is to produce them in the country, if possible. There are even reports of France and Germany accusing USA of diverting medical supplies like masks and that president Trump asked mask maker 3M not to supply masks and more to Canada and Latin America. Trump also bought up almost all stocks of Remdesivir, a drug used to treat coronavirus. (Further Reading)

Plus the world is experiencing infighting and global politics at its worst:
At G20 meeting of health ministers the intent was to strengthen WHO's mandate to coordinate fight against COVID-19 with a major focus on the process of crafting international agreements on any drugs or vaccines that successfully treat COVID-19. U.S. was the only country opposed to a statement that offered a framework for a united approach to fighting the pandemic and stopped funding WHO. (Further Reading)

The past has shown that poor developing nations don't have access to drugs that we in the industrialized world take for granted. Examples:

For the vast majority of the 325 million people living with hepatitis B or C, accessing testing and treatment remains beyond reach (Further Reading).
Without charitable donations by Big Pharma, for ages more than 75% of folks in developing world with hemophilia had little or no access to diagnosis and treatment. Those with severe hemophilia often did not survive to adulthood or, if they did, faced a life of severe disability and chronic pain (Further Reading).
Learning Points: If history repeats itself, COVID-19 will follow similar path. Folks in poor nations will be last to get the vaccine and treatments. And nations like USA whose POTUS puts America first, will try to gobble up most, leading to worldwide inequality in life-saving treatments. All at a time when the world needs to come together to fight a pandemic. 

As always, comments are most welcome and there are some.

First song I chose for the blog:

Back-up song you may enjoy is 'Money' from 1972's Cabaret film.
  • Money (by Lisa Minneli & Joel Grey)
Listed by date of news report

Trump buys up almost all stocks of Remdesivir, a drug used to treat coronavirus (1 July 2020)

Big pharma is taking big money from U.S. taxpayers to find a coronavirus vaccine  and charge whatever they want for it (24 June 2020)

Will coronavirus pandemic change Big Pharma's long-term focus? (15 June 2020)

Sanofi and Sobi donate up to 500 million additional IUs of clotting factor to WFH Humanitarian Aid Program (14 June 2020)

U.S. must stop blocking global effort to fight COVID-19 (23 Apr. 2020)

Big Pharma wants billions more for COVID-19 funding pot (21 Apr. 2020)

German, French officials accuse U.S. of diverting supplies (4 Apr. 2020)

WHO urges countries to invest in eliminating hepatitis (26 July 2019)

Sunday, May 31, 2020

For the times they are a-changing (Musings on COVID-19 global news)

Stay tuned: Revisions are sure to come
What to write about during COVID-19? It initially stumped me. Possibilities I considered include how coronavirus has impacted the blood supply worldwide and increased pressure from paid plasma advocates to promote paying for all plasma and other body tissues. 

Finally settled on a mini-survey of coronavirus news featured in May's TraQ's newsletter to see what, if anything, that might reveal..

The blog's title is based on a 1965 ditty by Bob Dylan, and yes, it can be read many ways given the news.

The mini-survey is based on news items I selectively collated for TraQ's newsletter during March, April, and May 2020. As past blogs will show, the blogs are mine alone and reflect my personal biases. 

For May's blog I arbitrarily organized COVID-19 news items into four topics, which have some overlap:
  • General (Information, industry news, search for treatments and vaccines)
  • Blood supply (Risk of shortages)
  • Convalescent plasma
  • Journal articles
Results of TraQ's March to May survey:
Blood supply
6 3 4 13
Convalescent plasma
6 14 7 27
Journal articles
0 23 1538

I could have calculated results incorrectly. My search alerts may not have identified all possible news items in each category. Also, in May the number of convalescent plasma news items soared and I decided not to include  many in the newsletter, as they often involved only a few people and were repetitive of earlier news. It's possible I haven't yet been alerted to the existence of more COVID-19 research articles published in May. 

So, as I recall from the 1966 film Alfie, it's time to ask, 'What's it all about Alfie?' Or as I once told my Med Lab Sci students, you should try to identify the 'so what' message of research papers. So too should blogs have a point. My biased musings on the results:
  • So much money is being poured into research for a vaccine and improved COVID-19 testing. It's a race to get there first among nations, including to have the vaccine manufactured in a country, as presumably that would give priority access to its citizens. 
  • Seems a rush to strike gold first. Potential for industrialized nation to get priority access and developing nations to be left out as often is the case. Think of recombinant FVIII being unavailable for ages in developing nations. Also countries like India where blood banks still use ELISA to test for HIV, Hepatitis B and C, rather than NAT.
  • Convalescent plasma is the flavour of the year of COVID-19. Results look promising but final results not in yet. More troubling is the notion that having antibodies allows you to return to work as you are protected. But scientists don't know yet whether people who've been exposed will be immune for life, as for measles, or if COVID-19 can return again and again, like the common cold. 
  • Big Pharma wants mega-money up front to fund COVID-19 research (Further Reading). Quote from article:
    • Particular concern over poorer countries’ access to medical supplies was highlighted by G20 health ministers’ failure at the weekend to issue a declaration of solidarity after this was blocked by the US
I chose this Bob Dylan song as it reflects what's called the 'new normal' during COVID-19 and also reflects the current protests happening in the USA over the killing of a black man by a police officer. Somehow I suspect, with zero evidence, that the protests may be stronger and more widespread because of the coronavirus lockdown. Or perhaps because murder of black people by police has become all too common in America?

Chose Joan Baez to sing it for several reasons, the most important being she has a much better voice than Dylan. Also this version has the song's lyrics. Tidbit: Joan and Bob were once an item (Further Reading).
As always comments are most welcome.

TraQ's newsletters
Big Pharma calls for ‘billions’ in upfront coronavirus funding (20 Apr. 2020)

Joan Baez finally gets her public apology from Dylan (21 Sept. 2009)

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Could I have this dance (Musings on a love affair with transfusion medicine for NMLW)

Updated: 3 May 2020 (Fixed typos)  

Because it's National  Medical Laboratory Week, for April's blog I'll share brief anecdotes from the labs of the blood suppliers and transfusion services I've worked for, including when an educator. These are the personal anecdotes of an oldster and I hope that some of them give a chuckle, albeit a wry one.

Keep in mind that I last had a real job working in a clinical laboratory 20 years ago. But I taught many students who still work and we keep in touch. Plus I manage a transfusion mailing list for the Canadian Society for Transfusion Medicine and an educational transfusion website, so keep up-to-date in the field.

The blog's title is based on a 1980 ditty by Canada's Anne Murray, and yes, it's an allegory for what I want to convey in this blog.

1. CRC-BTS [Canadian Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service] 
CRC-BTS in Winnipeg, MB, Canada is where I began my career in 1964. It was a combined blood donor centre and central transfusion service for the city and outlying areas of Manitoba and northwest Ontario. In those days Winnipeg hospitals did not have blood banks per se but functioned merely as distribution centres of blood, whose 'blood banks' were managed by hospital RNs. 

As I've written before, today I would never be hired as I had a general BSc (not when hired, though), and no med lab training. My knowledge of blood was close to nil. Nonetheless, CRC-BTS became my family for 13 years and I thrived. Fact is, I loved coming to work each day as I never knew what it would entail and what else I'd learn.

I decided to read the current immunohematology bibles (textbooks and journals) and eventually wrote the CSMLS (then CSLT) subject exam in immunohematology (now transfusion science), which no longer exists as a subject exam. 

Tidbit: As a subject blood banker, I'm a dinosaur who no longer exists in Canada. At one point I took offense when the then CSLT President said those with subject certification were only good for chopping liver. Think I wrote a letter to the Society's newsletter in rebuttal. 

Then I became the clinical instructor for med lab students from Red River Community College (now Red River College), new CRC-BTS lab staff, and any trainee physicians who wanted to learn about the transfusion service. 

Teaching was a natural as after the science faculty, I took a short session in the Faculty of Education and taught high school in rural Manitoba for a year. Yes, the school I taught in was so desperate for teachers they took someone without a BSc and 3 months education training. Main subjects taught were chemistry and maths but many more as it was a 4-room high school. 

Same with CRC-BTS, they hired me without a BSc (I'd goofed off and failed physics in my first year). Eventually after 3 years, management pressed me to get the BSc and I obliged with a night course in what I recall as the 'new algebra'.   

Anecdote #1 
There were no SOPs at CRC-BTS, and before I became the clinical instructor, what students and new hires learned depended on which technologist trained them on-the-job. You can imagine what fun that was for trainees. Today, med lab training is based on competencies and students are evaluated daily, but not then. 

Finally, I decided to write SOPs for the transfusion service (TS) part of the operation on my holidays at a local lakeside cabin. Whatever possessed me? This was before I became the clinical instructor. So why did I do it? Lo and behold, the crossmatch lab used the SOPs I'd written. The SOPs weren't validated, we were in a wild west world where anything goes. 

Anecdote #2
At one point a new hire with a general BSc had a disability that included having deformed hands. She could do all laboratory tasks well (TS wasn't automated and everything was done by manually pipetting) but when it came to her compulsory medical done a few months into the job, the physician said she could not do the job and should be let go. 

After I spoke to other medical lab technologists, we unanimously agreed that we should all sign a letter to management saying she could do the job and we did. So why did we do it? Bottom line: She was kept on and stayed in the job for decades, eventually becoming a supervisor/manager. 

2. MLS [Medical Laboratory Science, University of Alberta]
In late 1977 I was hired as an MLS instructor to teach introductory transfusion science, with a joint appointment as the clinical instructor for the University of Alberta Hospital transfusion service (UAH-TS). I was sad to leave my pals and family in Winnipeg but excited to move to Edmonton and meet the challenge of teaching at a university. Yes, in MLS I loved coming to work each day as you never knew what it would entail, students being students, and what else I'd learn.

Anecdote #3
As the prior transfusion instructor had unexpectedly left after attending an AABB conference and meeting a young man 😂, the position was temporarily filled by an experienced med lab technologist from the UAH-TS. Indeed, she had applied for the job but did not get it as she lacked a BSc.

This technologist became a dear, close friend, showed me the ropes, how to navigate the hospital, and introduced me to the local blood bank community, which became my new family. She also got me involved in the CSMLS in several ways, including recommending me for the Certification Board, a 3-year appointment. So why did she do it?  

Anecdote #4
As mentioned earlier, I lacked education and training in medical laboratory science and managed to learn transfusion in-depth through reading and broad practical experience in a busy joint blood centre and transfusion service. In MLS most colleagues were graduates of MLS and they too befriended me, put up with my many deficiencies, became my family, and generously taught me the key things I needed to know in other clinical lab disciplines. I'm forever grateful. So why did they do it? 

3. CBS (Canadian Blood Services, Edmonton)
After MLS, I was lured to take a job at CBS as an assistant lab manager, where I was in charge of the patient services laboratory (PS lab): pretransfusion testing, prenatal testing. Not quite the job I expected, as it was promoted as having a significant teaching component. I refer to it as my 'assman' job as that's how the QA dept. addressed my correspondence. Again, I loved coming to work each day as I never knew what it would entail, more specifically what new knowledge and skills I'd learn. 

Anecdote #5
The person who had been running the lab on a temporary basis was in the first MLS class I taught all the way through, one of my 'kids' as I call them. She was an assistant to the person in the manager job prior to me. She should have gotten the job I now had, but nonetheless, she kindly showed me the CBS ropes and performed any function I asked her to do. So why did she do it? 

Anecdote #6
All of the PS lab staff (supervisors, technologists, lab assistants, clerical) generously welcomed me, a rank outsider. One of the big projects we had was being the Canadian pilot site for a new CBS computer system (Mak Progesa). In conjunction with the new lab information system, I decided to change most of the PS lab's serological and policy SOPs to update them, including instituting the electronic crossmatch. 

Despite what must have been stressful, all staff pitched in, performed above and beyond, and did so as a team with great camaraderie. In retrospect, I suspect we had a lot of fun meeting the training challenges. So why did they do it?

4. PLC [Consulting career]
I won't go into the many adventures I had in a consulting career as that's another blog. 

So the questions above ask why did I, she, they do it? The answer is the same for all. 

My experience is that medical lab technologists (biomedical scientists) who work in transfusion, and I suspect all clinical laboratories, are a close-knit family dedicated to protecting patient safety. Why do I say family? Because just like a biological family, the medical laboratory family has little to nil to do with ancestors and genes and everything to do with love, compassion, and support for members of the team.  

Perhaps transfusion is even more so a family, because we are a comparatively  small group. For example, when I was active in the profession I knew many med lab technologists in blood centres and transfusion services across Canada. When the Internet made international mailing lists possible, the family grew to include lab professionals from around the world. 

For all the positions I held throughout a long career, members of the family became lifelong pals. I think of my career and those of my colleagues as a long love affair with transfusion medicine and laboratory medicine that's never ended. I hope that those who work as med lab professionals in any discipline are lucky enough to feel the same, indeed, workers in any field. That I lucked out with my career is an understatement and I'm sure many of my transfusion colleagues over the years feel the same way.

Happy National Medical Laboratory Week (April 26 to May 2, 2020 in Canada). Though largely hidden from the public and working behind the scenes, we in clinical laboratories play a crucial role in diagnosing and treating diseases. 

I chose this song as a allegory for how so many medical laboratory technologists (biomedical scientists) feel about transfusion, myself included. 
Could I have this dance for the rest of my life?
Would you be my partner every night?
When we're together it feels so right
Could I have this dance for the rest of my life? 

As always, comments are most welcome and appreciated. See some below.

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

We are the world (Musings on COVID-19's impact on the world's blood supply)

Stay tuned: Revisions are sure to occur
March's blog derives from the ongoing worldwide shortage of blood due to the coronavirus (COVID-19). Of course, because this is a transfusion medicine blog, I'm preaching to the converted. But I hope it gets wider distribution among all healthcare colleagues and the public beyond. 

Specifically, I ask all transfusion heath professionals to speak to colleagues, family, friends, neighbours about the ongoing need for blood donation, made even more crucial because of the COVID-19 pandemic. 

The blog's title is based on a 1985 song written by Michael Jackson and Lionel Richie for  'USA for Africa.' 

For TraQ's newsletter, I've collated some of the ongoing blood shortages across the globe (Further Reading). Fact is, the need for blood transfusion is ongoing despite the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet blood donation has dropped off significantly in many nations for numerous reasons explained in the news items in Further Reading. 

Despite the ongoing efforts of the Transfusing Wisely initiative (Further Reading), implemented in many nations, regular need for transfusions still exits for many patients. Transfusing Wisely's general goals: Reduce the rate of unnecessary blood transfusions with the goals of lowering the risk of complications for patients and supporting the judicious use of valuable resources. 

For the general public, just some of the ongoing needs for blood transfusion include the following (not all inclusive):

Patients who need blood transfusions
  • Mothers who incur significant bleeding during delivery, including those with placenta previa
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding (if massive can be life threatening) with many causes such as hemorrhoids, peptic ulcers, tears or inflammation in the esophagus, diverticulosis and diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, colonic polyps, or cancer in the colon, stomach or esophagus  
  • Kidney disease, sometimes secondary to type 1 diabetes, that requires dialysis
  • Any surgery that involves significant blood loss
  • Trauma patients including those in car accidents who experience blood loss and victims of knife attacks or gun shot wounds
  • Blood disorders, including
    • Thalassemia major patients need regular red blood cell transfusions to raise their hemoglobin level and deliver oxygen to body tissues
    • Sickle cell disease patients need regular red blood cell transfusions to provide normal red blood cells, lessen anemia and reduce the blood's viscosity, allowing it to flow more freely and ease disease symptoms and prevent complications
    • Leukemia patients who develop thrombocytopenia need platelet transfusions to control bleeding 
The need is real and ongoing. Please encourage colleagues, family, friends, and neighbours to donate blood and save a life. It's one thing folks can do during the pandemic. Further Reading includes questions about donating in Canada and blood systems in all nations have similar information. 

FOR FUN Naturally, I chose We Are The World, originally written for 'USA for Africa' in 1985 by Michael Jackson and Lionel Richie, produced by Quincy Jones and Michael Omartian, and sung by many fabulous American  artists.  
We are the world
We are the children
We are the ones who make a brighter day
So let's start giving...

As always, comments are most welcome and appreciated.
Australia: In the face of coronavirus pandemic, Australian Red Cross Lifeblood’s stocks are threatened (24 Mar. 2020)

Canada: Top doc says Canada still needs people to give blood amidst social distancing (17 Mar. 2020)
      Canadian Blood Services: Message by CEO Dr. Graham Sher
      CBS answers COVID-19 blood donation questions

Pakistan: Experts urge volunteers to donate blood as thalassaemia patients face shortage (22 Mar. 2020)

Spain: In COVID-19 emergency blood bank stocks in Costa Del Sol hospitals are alarmingly low (18 Mar. 2020)

UK: Blood donors needed after 15% drop, says NHS (23 Mar. 2020)

USA: Coronavirus fears threaten America's blood supply (12 Mar. 2020)

Transfusing Wisely Canada

Saturday, February 29, 2020

You don't own me (Musings on questioning Dr. orders)

 Updated: March 1, 2020
February's blog derives from another TraQ case study from decades ago that discusses a topic not often included in online transfusion medicine cases but is still relevant. This case was based on a case study used to teach nurses at the McGill University Health Centre (MUHC) in Montréal, Québec. Because of this blog, I've revised the case to update all links. 
  • The blog's title derives from a 1963 ditty first recorded by Lesley Gore.
Case Study O6: Transfusion Reaction Coincidental with Failure to Disobey Physician Orders
This case was suggested by an RN and, because I'm not a nurse, several helped me with the case, also medical laboratory technologist pals from Hamilton and a physician (whom I taught when she was in Medical Laboratory Science at the University of Alberta). 

This case study presents a scenario in which a nurse did not follow several key transfusion protocols and procedures, including adhering to the time limit for transfusing blood, monitoring vital signs throughout a transfusion, and questioning orders that contradicted hospital policies and procedures.

It began when the nurse called the attending physician to explain the situation and charted the conversation as follows:
  • The Dr. was made aware; he ordered to continue transfusion even if it takes all day.
What happened to the patient? Based on laboratory results and a multidisciplinary discussion, staff concluded that a febrile non-hemolytic reaction had likely occurred after the second PRBC and had triggered subsequent events:
  • Increased temperature and chills increased intracranial pressure (the drain had been closed the previous day), leading to
  • Seizure and convulsions (treated by medication, induced coma, and intubation)
Analysis of the incident revealed that the nurse in question required remedial training related to resolving slow running transfusions and critical thinking in general, and also required re-training for how to monitor and document transfusions.

A more systemic problem was identified regarding the responsibilities and related skills of health professionals to provide checks for patient safety as part of the healthcare team. In other words, she should have questioned the physician's orders and taken it further, though that would be difficult.

Further analysis resulted in individual re-training and a system-wide education program on responsibilities and skills for providing interdisciplinary checks to ensure patient safety.

Key learning points include:
1. Clinical staff who administer transfusions must be trained and assessed in blood administration.

2. Monitoring and documenting vital signs must be done for each blood component transfused before, during, and after transfusion according to established policies and procedures.

3. Scopes of practice ensure that health professionals have the required education, training, and professional qualifications to perform their duties competently and safely.

4. Within their respective scopes of practice, members of the health care team collaborate in providing patient care.

5. Perceived loss of autonomy is considered to be a major obstacle to collaboration and open questioning within health teams.

6. Nurses and allied health care professionals such as medical laboratory technologists have a duty to question physician orders that are inappropriate or unclear.

Yes, I'm being facetious with the title and song, having some fun, but I couldn't resist. Decided to use the version with Bette Midler, Goldie Hawn & Diane Keaton as in the 1996 film, The First Wives Club. Yep, love these actors.
As always, comments are most welcome.

Case Study O6: Transfusion Reaction Coincidental with Failure to Disobey Physician Orders (Links are fixed) 

Davies C. Getting doctors and nurses to work together. BMJ 2000 Apr 15;320:1021-2. [Changed title]

Mancini ME. Performance improvement in transfusion medicine. What do nurses need and want? Arch Pathol Lab Med 1999;123(6):496-502.

Poerto G, Lauve R. Disruptive Clinician Behavior: A Persistent Threat to Patient Safety (July /August 2006, Patient Safety & Quality Healthcare)

Salvage J, Smith R. Doctors and nurses: doing it differently. The time is ripe for a major reconstruction. BMJ. 2000 April 15; 320(7241): 1019-20.