Friday, April 22, 2016

Heart of Gold (Musings on donating the gift of life)

Updated: 24 April 2016
April's blog was stimulated by a flurry of news about organ and tissue donation in North America due to 
  • Canada: National Organ and Tissue Donation Awareness Week, April 22-28;
  • USA: April is National Donate Life Month;
  • Other nations have similar days, weeks, months throughout the year.
Recently, many news items have appeared on selling a body tissue, namely the introduction of paid plasma collection centres in Canada. Be aware that this is NOT another blog on that contentious issue. Rather it's about awareness of 
  • What we can donate;
  • Why we should donate;
  • How we can donate;
  • Why we don't donate. 
The blog's title derives from a 1972 ditty by Canada's Neil Young.

STATISTICS ON  DONATING BLOOD VS TISSUES AND ORGANS
The blog will mainly present Canadian statistics, which are not that different from statistics elsewhere in the world, except where noted. The focus will be on tissue and organ donation, not blood donation. OMG, statistics! Not to worry about being flooded with numbers. Statistics are great fun. 

About blood donation, ~4% of Canadians voluntarily donate bloodAs to tissue and organ donation, 80-90% of Canadians support organ and tissue donation but less than 20% make plans to donate.

Donating tissue and organs is in many ways different than donating blood, especially if the former applies to the future once you're dead, something you put in a Will or indicate on your driver's license. 

Organ donation is a complex process, which involves identifying potential donors, getting consent from families and procuring organs around the time of death. Donating tissues and organs after death is something that won't affect you personally as you're dead. 

But donating will affect your family at an emotional time, so it's essential that you frankly discuss your wishes with them. If your family objects, regardless of your wishes, your donation will not happen. 

Canadian STATS - Organ Donation (2014)
  • Over 4,500 people waited for organ transplants (77% needed a kidney); 
  • 2,356 organs were transplanted;
  • 278 people died waiting for a transplant (one-third needed a kidney).
TIDBITS
You can register to donate your organs and tissues and even donate certain organs while you're still alive: a kidney, part of the liver, and a lobe of the lung. See, for example,
An estimated two-thirds of deceased patients who are eligible to donate organs in Canada do not make it through the complex organ donation process. 

Only 2% of people who die meet the strict criteria for organ donation. But 90% can donate tissues, including corneas, heart valves, tendons and skin. 

Each deceased donor provides 3.4 organs on average.

Quebec had the highest deceased organ donor conversion rate in Canada, at 21% of eligible deaths, nearly double that of all the Prairie provinces.  

Transplant BC has 988,740 registered organ donors but only 422 organs were transplanted in 2015 due to strict medical requirements that rule out 99% of donors. Most deceased donors are declared brain-dead in intensive care but their hearts are kept beating until surgeries can be performed. 

Donation after Cardiac Death (DCD) is an emerging phenomenon in Canada that has forced the health care system to confront ethical issues on what constitutes death. Canada has adopted neurological criteria (“brain arrest”) to define death but some provinces do accept DCD.  

MUSINGS
Why don't more people donate?
So why don't more people take steps to give the gift of life after death? It's complex but here's why I think many good folks don't think about donating tissues and organs and plan for it:
  • Simply because it doesn't enter their consciousness;
  • Unless they know someone whose life depends on a transplant, they're unaware;
  • If they think about it, cutting up their bodies, even if dead, to remove parts may seem creepy;
Legal trade in tissues and organs
In many nations voluntarily donation is honoured but, depending on the body part, you may be able to sell it legally. For example:
Some argue we should be able to sell organs, not just plasma, hair, etc. 
 'A recent survey of Americans by researchers from Argentina, Canada, and the US. ...found that while barely half of respondents initially favored a system that would pay organ donors, the number rose significantly—to 71 percent—once those surveyed were given information about how the system would actually work.'
And some use arguments similar to those used to justify paid plasma. Paying helps the economy (the poor have more disposable money to spend) and recipient lives are saved. 

Black market in tissues and organs
We volunteer to donate body tissues and organs, we sell some legally, then there's the dark side, and it's very dark indeed.
As well, there's another shady, hidden body organ market that seldom sees the light of day:
You can search the Internet and find MANY similar - and even more gruesome - real-life, true reports.

LEARNING POINTS 
To me paid plasma is the thin edge of the wedge, the slippery slope that leads to hell, a hell where the poor sell their body parts in the open market to the highest bidder. Paid plasma and 'kidneys for sale' are on the same continuum.

My view is that voluntary tissue and organ donations are an incredible opportunity to make a real difference in the lives of fellow humans, whether 
Please take the time to indicate you want to donate tissues and organs, put it in your Will, and and explain your reasons to your family. Donating tissues and organs is a wonderful way to live after you die. 
  • In Canada, How to donate
  • In your country, search for 'organ donation' plus your nation, e.g., 
    • Organ donation UK, organ donation Australia, etc.
FOR FUN
Neil Young's song fits this blog:
FURTHER READING
A selection of resources used to develop this blog and ones well worth reading.

Saturday, March 19, 2016

We can work it out (Musings on transfusion medicine succession planning)

Updated: 21 Mar. 2016 (See Further Reading)
This month's blog derives from a news item in TraQ's monthly newsletter that resulted in my thinking about a topic I've spoken and written about often, succession planning
  • Why clinical labs and anatomic pathology are at risk because of no formal succession plan to develop their next generation of management leaders (Dark Daily, 16 Mar. 2016)
The Dark Daily report focuses on succession planning in US clinical labs and anatomic pathology. To me it encompasses several related issues.

My musings focus on why succession planning is a challenge in today's clinical laboratories and what I see as the main way it can realistically happen.


The blog is written from a medical laboratory technology perspective, as that's my background, but the issues also relate to nursing and physicians.

For example, as someone involved with helping seniors in their 90s who often go to Emergency Departments in ambulances, and later become what are disparagingly called 'bed blockers' in acute care hospitals, I see how short-staffed and stressed nursing staff are in both acute care and long term care facilities. To think these nurses, or the health care system in general, could ever prepare for succession planning beggars belief. Yet many nurses no doubt mentor their colleagues.

As for physicians, and hematopathologists in particular, mentoring happens due to the efforts of exceptional physicians. These professionals give above and beyond. I often see them answering queries at 11 pm, well after their work day ends, indeed after they've tended to family responsibilities.

The blog's title derives from a 1965 Beatles ditty.

For links to news item and resources, see Further Reading at the blog's end. Please take time to read the sample quotes from those who lived through restructuring and centralization. They're enlightening.


MUSINGS
CHALLENGE #1: Decreased CPD / CE
Decreasing budgets mean less money to train managers. Indeed, often money for continuing professional development (CPD) / continuing education (CE) all but dried up post-
laboratory consolidation.

If money were available for regional and national conferences, it went to medical directors, and perhaps to a lab manager, if any was left over. Sometimes medical directors paid part or all of their own expenses, leaving CPD/CE budgeted funds for managers and supervisors.

Today in Canada, some 20-25 years post-regionalization of laboratory services, clinical lab staff are mostly unionized and have contracts giving some degree of support such as 3-5 days paid leave for CPD/CE. But transportation to and accommodation at conferences often run over $1000, making attendance all but impossible without support.

In many cases, attending conferences also requires a supportive spouse and family to tend to extra duties with children, and generous colleagues to take up the slack at work, because while you're away, adequate replacement staff (if any at all) are seldom brought in.

Although valuable, the main benefit of conferences is not so much in hearing the latest and greatest from speakers (researchers and 'thought leaders'), but rather in socializing with peers.

It's in the socializing that you learn the goodies and tidbits not found in journals and not presented at conferences.

CHALLENGE #2: Decreased Mentoring
Staffing cutbacks leave remaining managers and administrators little time to mentor those with promising management and leadership skills.

Today it takes staff all their skill and energy to produce reliable lab test results that physicians rely on to diagnose and treat patients.

For example, with centralization and regionalization of laboratory services in the 1990s in Alberta,Canada, the first to go were middle managers. In this case, career lab technologists in affected hospitals - all experienced managers and supervisors - were left competing for the few remaining positions.

  • To see the reality of what lab regionalization means to people, see CSTM's blog on Dianne Powell below.
Under such circumstances, successful candidates often find themselves stressed to the max, not only with an extra workload, but often in unfamiliar surroundings (e.g., a different hospital in the same city).

Other contributing factors to stressed and overworked staff following lab centralization include

  • After significant change, many staff are so stressed that they may become negative, opting to do the bare minimum required for the job and fostering 'bitch sessions' at coffee and lunch. Even 'keeners' can be brought down by a steady diet of negativity.
  • Some staff come to believe, sometimes with good reason, that the organization is not loyal to them and they reciprocate the perceived feeling. Work may then become a '9-5 job' (just to earn $) as opposed to a career (lifelong journey to fulfill personally rewarding goals).
  • With centralization, more automation invariably follows because volume makes the instruments more affordable, especially given that fewer higher paid technologists are needed. To some lab workers, once the thrill of something new and shiny subsides, automation is 'okay' but not particularly rewarding.
Frankly, working with their hands and problem solving were the magical magnets that drew many to working in transfusion labs (and also microbiology). Loading mega-specimen trays, pushing buttons, and watching the instrument's software spew out results is not the most rewarding to such folks.

At the same time as automation occurs, specialized staff are lost and more generalists, as well as laboratory assistants, are hired to be supervised by a shrinking number of specialists. All of which contribute to overwork and increased stress in managers. The priority is for labs to become huge factories churning out products (lab results).

Mentoring future leaders becomes tougher and requires incredible effort by truly dedicated lab managers.
 
LEARNING POINTS

1. Health professionals should give themselves every educational advantage.

Especially in the 1990s, many exceptional Canadian laboratory technologists (and those of many nationalities) were forced to leave the profession due to lack of jobs. Others with appropriate credentials found work internationally. A BSc in Med Lab Science helped. Suspect a BSc in Nursing helped too, at least for working in the USA under NAFTA.

2. After large-scale centralization, or massive change of any kind, managers must have emotional intelligence.

From my brief experience in the world of management, managing staff is more important than all the experience and knowledge in the world (which also counts on the respect metre).

3. Formal succession planning? Are you kidding? A formal plan is tough. Mentoring is where it's at.

I know several med lab technologist leaders who continue to mentor staff informally. Mentoring occurs in nursing and among transfusion physicians too. All by folks I call the 'special ones' - health professionals who love their careers and go the extra mile to share the nuggets they've learned over many years.

Personally, I've had many talented mentors over the years. The first was Catherine Anderson, the lab manager at Canadian Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service in Winnipeg, when I was a kid of 21 years. She had CRC-BTS fund my way to local, national, and international conferences and workshops, had me speak in her place at conferences (at first I was 'shaking in my boots'), and left me in charge of a few administrative tasks when she was away. 


Plus when I screwed up, and I did, it was a learning experience, not the blame game. 

I'll mention one other mentor, Dr. David Ferguson, Medical Director of the UAH transfusion service in my days in MLS, University of Alberta, where I was also a clinical instructor for the UAH blood bank.

What David did was treat me as an equal, although I definitely was not. We shared many a laugh over student oral exams (Delicious biflorus being an answer one student gave to 'What is the the anti-A1 lectin?'). We also co-authored an immunohematology paper published in Transfusion. His reaction to reviewer feedback still makes me chuckle  today.

Mentoring is what develops future leaders in any field. Mentors come in all shapes and sizes. Some fear and resist change, others are big-picture visionaries who welcome change. A m
entor's key characteristics? 
  • Encouraging staff to be all they can be.
  • Modelling how exemplary professionals think and act.
As always the views are mine alone and comments are most welcome.

FOR FUN
I chose the blog's title song for its lyrics about life being short and there's no time to fuss about. Mentor potential lab leaders NOW or the proverbial poop will hit the fan as experienced staff retire in increasing numbers.

Life is very short, and there's no time
For fussing and fighting, my friend
I have always thought that it's a crime
So I will ask you once again

Try to see it my way
Only time will tell if I am right or I am wrong....

FURTHER READING


CSTM 'I will remember you' blogs (in alphabetical order) 
Sample quotes related to this blog's theme
NOTE: These blogs are based on my interviews with health professionals, leaders in their field, to celebrate their outstanding careers, awards, and accomplishments. Refreshingly, besides all the things they loved about their transfusion medicine lives (read the blogs!), they also speak frankly about regrets and the realities of laboratory consolidation and cost constraints.
  • Kieran Biggins (17 Jan. 2016)
    • Also, I regret allowing myself to be consumed by change fatigue during the last few years of working for Alberta Health Services.
    • ...I became the first Transfusion Safety Officer (TSO) in Alberta. Unfortunately, as the healthcare system in Alberta was consolidated yet again and again, my employer felt it necessary to add additional responsibilities to my new position such that I soon had two full-time equivalent responsibilities: TSO and Laboratory Quality Assurance Supervisor!
    • In the last few years of my employment with AHS, there was an overwhelming culture of DON'T question any changes, keep your head down, don't make waves and don't rock the boat. Unfortunately,  this (as you know) is not me....
  • Kathy Chambers (8 Jan. 2016)
    • Accomplishments and fun: Managing a team of smart, empowered women who made the transfusion service as good when I was not there as when I was.
    • This happened at RCH in New Westminster. From designing a new lab, working in less than good circumstances... moving into the new space and doing great work in their day-to-day duties, I think we truly had a quality system before it was introduced into labs.
    • Others: Having good mentors to make me a better person...
    • Attending conferences all over the world, meeting and networking with fellow TM practitioners. Loads of memories and great friendships.
  • Kate Gagliardi (20 Mar. 2016)
    • 'Regionalization – most of us minions had no control over fundamental changes in the environment which led to multi-sited organizations – and yet I sincerely missed the glory days of a single-site academic institution and the world within it that we had created.  It would have been nice to retain some of the good things – tight, dedicated teams, which endured despite changes in the personnel and services.'
  • Dianne Powell (7 Feb. 2016)
  • As a cost cutting measure, the RAH and Charles Camsell Hospital laboratory services were to merge. The process involved much uncertainly and anxiety. Our laboratory manager at the Camsell was given a package and quietly disappeared and staff felt quite un-tethered. As supervisors, we tried to provide support for the lab staff as we were dealing with the uncertainty, but as supervisors we were also dealing with maintaining the daily routine in the lab and ensuring testing got done.

    And we were told almost immediately that
    • We would need to submit our resumes and compete with our counterparts at the RAH Laboratory for our positions.
    • If unsuccessful in the competition, there was no place in the organization for us.
    • We would be given a package and be asked to leave immediately so we should have our personal stuff packed up.
    • Sounds like the reality TV show 'Survivor', no?

Friday, February 19, 2016

Sweet Dreams (Musings on a recent transfusion-related nightmare)

Updated: 28 Feb. 2015 (see CBS's Dr. Sher audio clip at end)
February's blog derives from news items in TraQ's monthly newsletter that resulted in my dreaming from a 'what if' perspective.

The title derives from a Eurythmics ditty that I've used several times before. Was reminded of it again from this Twitter post from 
@SantaCruzbio:



For links to news items and resources, see Further Reading at the blog's end.


I HAD A DREAM 
Dreamt I was a Canadian who had a blood transfusion in 2018 and contacted a debilitating, deadly disease. Turns out 1000s of folks around the globe got the same transfusion-associated disease and many died within a few years before they discovered a treatment that works for many, but not all, and not forever. 

THE DISEASE
The disease I contacted was named 
  • Arrogant Scientific Syndrome by Highly Analytical Tossers after those who allowed it to happen (ASSHAT for short)
At first ASSHAT appeared in homosexual and bisexual males, so was deemed sexually transmitted and soon it showed up in IV drug abusers, presumably via contaminated needles. 

Hence, the perspective developed that it was the victim's fault - THEM - and wouldn't affect WE- those of us outside those groups. In other words, the typical WE-THEY bigotry. 

I DREAMT THE NEWS TODAY, OH BOY...
In my dream, here are but 6 things that happened in Canada, and no doubt occurred elsewhere, given that government bureaucrats, medical administrators, and physicians (sometimes the same individuals wearing different hats) are similar the world over.

1. The transfusion medicine community naturally denied ASSHAT was transfusion-transmitted until the evidence was overwhelming. They knew the blood supply was safe, so much safer than before. After all, the new transmissible disease test for hepatitis B had been implemented ~10 years ago. We felt safe.

2. At first the blood supplier chose not to screen out high-risk donors for fear of blood shortages, aided by interest group lobbying.

3. The blood supplier and its government funders were so concerned about saving money that they cut corners, in secret, of course. Specifically, they chose
  • Not to purchase a safer blood product for hemophiliacs in order to use up contaminated inventory, apparently thinking they were likely already infected, so what the hey! Or perhaps they thought better to give contaminated products than none at all, given the dangers of severe bleeding? Maybe they thought they were leveraging existing inventory to save money. Who knows?
  • To delay implementing a test for ASSHAT because money was tight.
4. Someone, who knows who or how, destroyed key documents, minutes of meetings) of the Canadian Blood Committee. This group influenced, if not outright decided, most of the above decisions.

5. At an individual level, a paternalistic physician chose not to tell an older man's wife that her husband was ASSHAT-positive because the physician was sure they were not having sex. No doubt he thought he was being kind. Wrong! The wife came down with ASSHAT and sued the physician, which is how we found out about it.

6. Ultimately, police laid 32 criminal charges against senior scientists at Health Canada, the Canadian Red Cross Society and Armour Pharmaceutical Co. Guess how many were convicted?

OUTCOME
In Canada a commission of inquiry was set up ~12 years later in 2030 and completed its report in 2034. That was 16 years after I contacted ASSHAT. 

But I was one of the 'lucky ones' who was still alive. And I benefited because the federal government  offered $120K in 'humanitarian assistance' in exchange for a promise we would not sue. The provinces later offered $30K/year for life. 

Those who got variant ASSHAT, resulting from the blood supplier failing to use surrogate tests used in the USA, threatened to sue for equal treatment and the government paid out millions of dollars. 

Many of those affected by both diseases died before compensation was available. Sometimes I suspect maybe that was the idea.

Then I dreamt that I was British and had a worse nightmare. The inquiry into ASSHAT offered only one wimpy recommendation after 6 years of inquiry, held more than 25 years after the ASSHAT tragedy. I had died by then.

LEARNING POINTS
Think what happened in my horrific dream couldn't happen, that it's just too far out, too sci-fi? Think again. It already has. Think it couldn't happen again? Why? The physicians and blood administrators who made the decisions decades ago were smart, caring people. But not infallible when confronted with financial constraints, interest group lobbying, and political pressure.

Canada was one of the few, maybe only, countries that held an extensive legitimate inquiry into what is typically called in the media, the tainted blood scandal

Canada's Krever Commission had 50 recommendations. The first was to compensate victims. Recommendation 2:
    • Blood is a public resource.
    • Donors should not be paid.
    • Sufficient blood should be collected so that importation from other countries is unnecessary.
    • Access to blood and blood products should be free and universal.
    • Safety of the blood supply system is paramount.
But apparently paying blood donors is now okay, at least for plasma, because we are so much smarter today and our technology is so much better. Sure it is. 

As always the views are mine alone and comments are most welcome.

FOR FUN
I chose Sweet Dreams as the music for the blog because it's ironic. My dream was not a Sweet Dream but rather a nightmare. Nonetheless, I love this ditty:
  • Sweet Dreams [are made of this] (Annie Lennox, Live 8, Hyde Park, London, 2005)
Sweet dreams are made of this.
Who am I to disagree?
I travel the world and the seven seas
Everybody's looking for something.

Some of them want to use you.
Some of them want to get used by you.
Some of them want to abuse you.
Some of them want to be abused.


Thanks to Anonymous (see Comments below) for link to this video by CBS CEO Dr. Graham Sher:





Also thanks to Anonymous for 

  • Audio clip (~10 mins): CBS CEO Graham Sher's interview (CBC, The Current, 25 Feb. 2016) 
    • Transcript of interview
    • Apparently, the manufacturing process for plasma derivatives kills anything and everything. Why even test plasma collected for fractionated products? Maybe the price of IVIg would come down?
FURTHER READING
Canada
UK

Wednesday, January 20, 2016

Simply the best (Musings on paid plasma & TM colleagues I've know)

Updated: 23 Jan. 2016
January's blog is a two-fer, derived from a news item in TraQ's monthly newsletter and a blog series written for the Canadian Society for Transfusion Medicine (CSTM).

The title derives from a 1989 Tina Turner classic. And it relates to the CSTM blogs, not paid plasma. But I suspect you could figure that out. Paid plasma and its Canadian players are the antithesis of the best.

Although this blog and the CSTM blogs are from a Canadian perspective, I'm confident you will see how the content and issues relate to you, no matter where you practice.

For links to news items and resources, see Further Reading at the blog's end.


#1. MUSINGS - HONORING COLLEAGUES / RECORDING HISTORY
I encourage readers to read this new series of blogs on the Canadian Society for Transfusion Medicine site. To date there are two blogs, with many more to come.  As I wrote to introduce the first blog:

Each blog begins with my musings on the individual, followed by a brief background on the person's career, sometimes with my comments throughout. 
If you're looking for a rah-rah, rosy view of Canada's transfusion medicine field, this ain't it. Why? Although all participants enjoyed their careers and love the transfusion profession, they also speak honestly about both the ups and downs. Perhaps their reflections will resonate with your experiences.
Take a peek. Blogs present real experience with honest opinions that challenge the 'powers that be'. I encourage you to comment on the CSTM website and give your experiences, whether similar or different.

Now for the NOT BEST. 

#2. MUSINGS - PAID PLASMA REDUX

Oh, no, I can hear you scream. Not paid plasma in Canada again! Yep, because it's in the news again. To me, it's like whack-a-mole or the gift that keeps on giving, blog-wise. So much to learn from this Canadian saga, and most of it BAD.

Don Davies, a federal MP with a centre-left Canadian political party (NDP) has called on paid plasma clinics to be banned. Already not allowed in 2 provinces (Ontario and Quebec), a company, Canadian Plasma Resources, now has plans to set up in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan and has the approval of its right-of-centre government.

Party characterizations are mine. Feel free to disagree. Note that in Canada's political system, jurisdiction over health care belongs to the provinces.
Bottom line, and one reason why I think writing about this again is useful:
  • MP Davies bases objections on safety. Since Canada has one of the safest blood systems in the world, this is a hard sell. More credible arguments against paid plasma are nuanced.
Safety
In a nutshell, the safety risks of paid plasma are exceedingly small but not zero. Any remaining risks are rare and relate to the 

  • Poor and needy potentially lying on blood donor screening questionnaires to get the money, combined with 
  • Reality of window periods of negativity (even short ones), such that screening tests may not detect early infection.
Another risk factor is that of unknown new and emerging infections that may be transfusion-transmissible. You can bet they exist, just as death and taxes are sure things.

In both cases, the infections would need to escape existing donor screening questions and tests, as well as current processes in the manufacture of plasma derivatives (e.g., albumin and immune globulins such as IVIg and Rh immune globulin), including

  • Plasma quarantine
  • Technology to inactivates viruses
  • Purification steps
Can transfusion-associated risks happen with plasma derivatives? Yes. Likelihood? Extremely low. One unknown is the human factor. Humans make mistakes, otherwise known as 'shit happens'.  

But, similar to winning the USA's Power Ball $1.6b lottery (odds are ~1 in 292 million), eventually someone will do it. If you're the unlucky patient  who gets a transfusion-transmissible disease, no matter how unlikely, it matters not.

Moral/philosophical
Canada, like many nations, adopted an altruistic view of blood donation, meaning paid plasma donation is an anathema.

But paid plasma donation has existed since the 1960s in Canada, something paid plasma advocates love to point out:


As far back as the 1960s, the Rh Institute in Winnipeg paid Rh negative women with potent anti-D causing severe HDN and fetal death a small honorarium for their time in donating plasma by plasmapheresis. 
Side-Bar: Never mentioned in the literature - something that fell under the radar: In the 1960s Canadian Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service (CRC-BTS) bled employees for blood typing antisera and paid us. How much? A whopping $5/donation.
As a group A CRC-BTS medical lab technologist employee, I donated plasma for anti-B antisera and was injected with soluble B antigen to increase my anti-B titre. My group B co-worker had her anti-A similarly boosted and plasmapheresed for anti-A. 
Such donations ceased when my co-worker's first child had severe ABO-HDN. Physician in charge realized it was not a good idea to boost the strength of ABO antibodies in young women of childbearing age. Doh!
Back to anti-D: Donation initially occurred at CRC-BTS (now CBS). As someone involved I can testify that the 'Rh ladies', many of whom had fetuses stillborn due to severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDN or HDFN) did not donate for the small honorarium. 
Rather it was to help other woman not have to suffer their pain and in gratitude to Dr. John Bowman, who donated his own group O Rh-negative blood for exchange transfusions, pioneered inter-uterine transfusions (IUTs), which gave them living children, as well as pioneering antenatal Rh Immune globulin manufactured from their plasma, which prevented HDFN in others.
  • So, please, don't buy the guff that today's poor who donate for money are in any way similar to these women donating anti-D in Winnipeg. 
Since then a commercial company (Cangene, now defunct and part of Emergent Biosolutions) expanded to paying not only the 'Rh ladies' with potent anti-D, but others with special antibodies to manufacture plasma derivatives such as hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG). 

Canada's approach to commercialized, private medicine
To some extent Canadians have looked our collective noses down on the commercialization of blood donation (and health care in general) in our U.S. neighbour.
Ignoring the ethics of paying the poor for plasma and charging those unfortunate enough to be sick for health care, many Canadian medical lab technologists/scientists who work in the USA are astounded at the bureaucratic nightmare associated with hospital transfusion services charging patients for each and every pretransfusion test.
  • Need a type and screen? Ka-ching!
  • Have an antibody to identify? Ka-ching! 
  • Need antigen-negative red cells? Ka-ching! 
  • Need multiple red cell, plasma, and platelet transfusions? Ka-ching! 
  • Require special blood products like irradiated red cells? Ka-ching!
Patients can be billed $1000s of dollars. Many don't have private insurance associated with employment or are not poor enough to get Medicaid or are elderly (Medicare).

For more on USA's system of paid blood donation and private healthcare, see Further Reading (Domen and AABB and Deciphering USA's Health Insurance System (an information page I created with significant help from a MEDLAB-L subscriber).


What does 'paying' donors mean?
Today USA's so-called 'non-profit' blood banks do not directly pay whole blood and plasma donors money. It's done via various incentives. 


Sample 'non-profit' blood bank incentives (via Oklahoma Blood Institute):

Paid plasma collection centers, some operated from abroad, e.g., Australia's CSL, are different. They prey on the poor and make a lot of money doing so. Even they now have sense enough to shy away from the filthy lucre ($$$) and do not pay donors directly. It's usually done by prepaid debit cards, as explained here:
BOTTOM LINE: Many Canadians think this is the way to go. I do not.Those promoting paid plasma lay on the fear and guilt: people will die without a sufficient supply of plasma derivatives. Then they play the hypocrisy card, noting that CBS buys products made from paid plasma donors. 

What they don't say is 'Let's build the plasma collection centres next to homeless shelters so we can get our supply 'on the cheap'. Renting or buying a facility will also cost less. Value-added! Let's leverage the location to improve our bottom line and pay higher dividends to our investors.' Because it's all about the money, stupid!

For interest, someone sent this as a comment to an earlier blog and it's never been more relevant:

"Regarding Paid Plasma and the potential go ahead in Saskatchewan (SK):

We have had no public consultation in SK. and we are still don’t know what happened to the results from the Health Canada Public Consultation on the Safety of Paid Plasma Donations.
The CBS doesn’t collect as much as they could because of cost not donor availability but this reality gets stood on its head to appear that there are not enough donors and we actually need this. 
CHS and CBS support the deal adding credibility not to a Baxter or Octapharma but instead to a bunch of guys that really do not appear to be very credible. 
It's all incredibly interesting. Can't help but wonder who will be handling the testing of samples for CPR?"
MY TAKE. Health Canada and CBS both come across as a joke in this sorry saga:
Can HC make a decision that doesn't ebb and flow in the wind depending on how key stakeholders lean? And if profit-motivated Canadian Plasma Resources opens for business in SK, who will do the transmissible disease testing?

Can CBS please stop with the weasel words that they support voluntary blood donation but, hey, paid plasma is safe and, by the way, we REALLY need it?


FOR FUN

When I write about my colleagues, I always think of Tina's song:
As always, the views expressed are mine alone. 

Comments are most welcome (you can do so anonymously). See below. 
FURTHER READING
My 5 prior bogs on paid plasma (Some internal links to news items may not work but you'll get the idea)
Paid plasma clinics must be banned: NDP (15 Jan. 2016)

AABB: Billing for Blood and Transfusion Services: Frequently Asked Questions and Answers

Deciphering USA's Health Insurance System  (Generous help with links supplied by James Pusavat, a MEDLAB-L subscriber from the USA)


Domen RE. Paid-versus-volunteer blood donation in the United States: a historical review. Transfus Med Rev. 1995 Jan;9(1):53-9.

What is USA's Medicare vs Medicaid? / Also see 
Investopedia

This next paper is a beauty. Gives all you need to know about paid plasma in Canada, and its advocates: